The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (French: Charte des droits et libertes de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975. It came into effect a year later, on June 28, 1976.

Introduced by the Liberal government of Robert Bourassa, the Charter followed extensive preparatory work that began under the Union National, government of Daniel Johnson.

The Charter ranks among other quasi-constitutional Quebec laws, such as the Charter of the French Language and the Act respecting Access to documents held by public bodies and the Protection of personal information.

Having precedence over all legislation (including the latter), the Quebec Charter stands at the pinnacle of Quebec's legal system.

Only the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, as part of Canada's Constitution, enjoys priority over the Quebec Charter.

Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms consists of six parts:

Part I defines the fundamental human rights. Its six chapters enunciate fundamental freedoms and rights, equality rights, political rights, judicial rights, economic and social rights, and interpretative provisions.

Part II establishes the Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission).

The Commssion is responsible for promoting and upholding the principles of the Charter by any appropriate measures, including investigating into possible cases of discrimination and the introduction of litigation. Members of the Commission are appointed by the National Assembly. The Commission's staff members do not belong to the civil service in order to safeguard their independence.

Part III provides for affirmative action programs.

Part IV guarantees rights to confidentiality.

Part V gives the Government regulatory powers.

Part VI establishes the Quebec Human Rights Tribunal, whose members are chosen from among the judiciary. Comparison With other Human Rights Instruments

The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms is unique among Canadian (and North American) human rights documents in that it covers not only the fundamental (civil and political) human rights, but also a number of important social and economic rights.

The protections contained in the Charter are inspired by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the the International Covenant on Civil and and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Furthermore, the list of prohibited grounds of discrimination included in the Quebec Charter is extensive.

A total of fourteen prohibited grounds are enumerated, including race, colour, ethnic or national origin, sex, pregnancy and age.

"Social condition" has been a prohibited ground of discrimination since the Charter came into force. Discrimination based on sexual orientation has been prohibited since 1977; the Charter was the first law in the world to do so in a jurisdiction larger than a city or county.


An illicit violation of the Charter, whether by a private party or by the State, may give rise to a cease-and-desist order and to compensation for damages. Punitive damages may be awarded in case of intentional violation.

The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms is called quasi-constitutional because, according to Section 52, no provision of any other act passed by theQuebec National Assembly may derogate from its provisions, unless such act expressly states that it applies despite the Charter. A total impossibility to adopt derogating laws would be incompatible with Parliamentary sovereignty, a fundamental principle in political systems following the British tradition.

The Charter's supremacy under Section 52 applies to the following categories of rights:

fundamental rights and freedoms (the right to life, free speech, freedom of religion, the right to privacy, etc.);

the right to equality;

political rights; and

judicial rights.

Economic and social rights do not enjoy supremacy but, according to the Supreme Court of Canada in the 2002 case of Gosselin v. Quebec (Attorney General), failure to respect such a right may give rise to a judicial declaration of violation.

The Quebec Charter provides for a specific machinery in cases of discrimination (or exploitation of an elderly or handicapped person). Instead of introducing litigation in court, victims of such a violation may file a complaint with the Quebec Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission. The Commission will investigate the matter and attempt to foster a settlement between the parties.

It may recommend corrective measures. If those are not followed, the Commission may introduce litigation before a court (usually, but not necessarily, the Quebec Human Rights Tribunal).

Victims will be represented free of charge by the Commission.

The Quebec Charter does not apply to federally regulated activities in Quebec. Those are subject to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and/or the Canadian Human Rights Act



  • Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedomm

  • Justice is a conscience, not a personal conscience but conscience of the whole of the humanity.
    Those who clearly recognize the voice of their own conscience usually recognize also the voice of Justice.
    Alexander Solzhenitsyn